Interplay of inertia and heterogeneous dynamics in an ensemble of Kuramoto oscillators

[Analysis and Applications, published in online.]

This is a joint work with Seung-Yeal Ha and Se Eun Noh.
(To see the Kuramoto model)

We study the dynamic interplay between inertia and heterogeneous dynamics in an ensemble of Kuramoto oscillators. When external fields and internal forces are exerted on a system of Kuramoto oscillators, each oscillator has its own distinct dynamics, so that there is no notion of collective dynamics in the ensemble, and complete synchronization is not observed in such systems. In this paper, we study a relaxed version of synchronization, namely the “practical synchronization”, of Kuramoto oscillators, emerging from the dynamic interplay between inertia and heterogeneous decoupled dynamics. We will show that for some class of initial configurations and parameters, the fluctuation of phases and frequencies around the average values will be proportional to the inverse of the coupling strength. We provide several numerical examples, and compare these with our analytical results.

On the global well-posedness of BV weak solutions to the Kuramoto-Sakaguchi equation

[Journal of Differential Equations, published in Journal of Differential Equations, 262 (2017), no. 2, 978 – 1022.]

This is a joint work with Debora Amadori and Seung-Yeal Ha.

The Kuramoto model is a prototype phase model describing the synchronous behavior of weakly coupled limit-cycle oscillators. When the number of oscillators is sufficiently large, the dynamics of Kuramoto ensemble can be effectively approximated by the corresponding mean-field equation, namely “the Kuramoto–Sakaguchi (KS) equation”. This KS equation is a kind of scalar conservation law with a nonlocal flux function due to the mean-field interactions among oscillators. In this paper, we provide a unique global solvability of bounded variation (BV) weak solutions to the kinetic KS equation for identical oscillators using the method of front-tracking in hyperbolic conservation laws. Moreover, we also show that our BV weak solutions satisfy local-in-time L^1-stability with respect to BV-initial data. For the ensemble of identical Kuramoto oscillators, we explicitly construct an exponentially growing BV weak solution generated from BV perturbation of incoherent state for any positive coupling strength. This implies the nonlinear instability of incoherent state in a positive coupling strength regime. We provide several numerical examples and compare them with our analytical results.

Collective synchronization of classical and quantum oscillators

[Published in EMS Surveys in Mathematical Sciences, 3 (2016), no. 2, 209 – 267.]

This is a joint work with Seung-Yeal Ha, Dongnam Ko, and Xiongtao Zhang.

(To see the Kuramoto model)
(To see the Winfree model)

Synchronization of weakly coupled oscillators is ubiquitous in biological and chemical complex systems. Recently, research on collective dynamics of many-body systems has been received much attention due to their possible applications in engineering. In this survey paper, we mainly focus on the large-time dynamics of several synchronization models and review state-of-art results on the collective behaviors for synchronization models. Following a chronological order, we begin our discussion with two classical phase models (Winfree and Kuramoto models), and two quantum synchronization models (Lohe and Schrödinger–Lohe models). For these models, we present several sufficient conditions for the emergence of synchronization using mathematical tools from dynamical systems theory, kinetic theory and partial differential equations in a unified framework.

Synchronization of the Kuramoto oscillators with adaptive couplings

[Published in SIAM Journal on Applied Dynamical Systems, 15(1), (2016), 162-194.]

[Preprint version]

This is a joint work with Seung-Yeal Ha and Se Eun Noh.
(To see the Kuramoto model)

We study the synchronization of Kuramoto oscillators with adaptive coupling in interacting networks. Network dynamics preserves the sum of all incoming pairwise coupling strengths and is designed to adaptively interact with system dynamics. For adaptive couplings, we use two adaptive coupling laws for the pairwise coupling strength. Kuramoto oscillators are assumed to be on the nodes of the networks. We present frameworks that guarantee the emergence of synchronization for various coupling feedback laws. Our results generalize earlier work on the synchronization of Kuramoto oscillators in fixed and symmetric networks.

Practical synchronization of Kuramoto system with an intrinsic dynamics

[Published in Networks and Heterogeneous Media 10 (2015), no. 4, 787 - 807.]

[Preprint version]

This is a joint work with Seung-Yeal Ha and Se Eun Noh.
(To see the Kuramoto model)

Let \zeta_i \in \mathbb R be a Kuramoto oscillators. Consider the Kuramoto system under external forcings:
\begin{equation}\label{prac-1}
\dot \zeta_i = \mathcal F_i(\zeta_i, t) + K\sum_{j=1}^N \psi_{ij} \sin(\zeta_j - \zeta_i),
\end{equation}
where the static matrix \Psi = (\psi_{ij}) satisfies symmetry and path connectedness. We study the practical synchronization of the Kuramoto dynamics of units distributed over networks. The practical synchronization is define by
\begin{equation*}\label{prac-2}
\lim_{K\to\infty} \limsup_{t\to\infty} D(\zeta(t))= 0.
\end{equation*}

The unit dynamics on the nodes of the network are governed by the interplay between their own intrinsic dynamics and Kuramoto coupling dynamics. Under some boundedness conditions, we show that the system \eqref{prac-1} yields a practical synchronization.